Cameras and equipments are an astonishingly wide topic, and its aspects and nuances could well be the subject matter of a book of several pages. For instance, a Google search would take you to a dizzying array of pages, which contain information for not only rank amateurs but also hard-nosed professionals. Anyway, cameras, simply stated, record and store images. The term has been derived from the Latin, camera obscura meaning dark chamber, an arrangement for projecting images.
So, within that general term you would find: still camera, for taking single photographs; instant camera, which develops the film itself; and Schmidt and Wright cameras, which are of specialized uses. Then there is the electronic digital camera, video camera, and so on along with the camera phone, the ubiquitous accessory of almost everybody, including perhaps yourself. Until recently, the captured images were developed on photo graphic papers but now on they could be seen electronically on the screen of the camera itself. However, developed images on papers are still continued.
With regard to equipments, you would be faced with a similar wide variety of choices. To start with, there is the famous Konica started around 1873 by the then biggest pharmacy store inTokyo, Konishiya Rokubē, where photographic chemicals were sold. You also have the US multinational company Eastman Kodak, beginning in 1892 as Eastman Dryplate and General Aristo Companies in New York selling cameras and film rolls. From box and folding cameras to silver halide photographic paper, it is but a century plus years progression towards manufacture of digital cameras and digital video cameras; digital photo frames; photographic chemicals, films and papers; photo hosting service; imaging systems and sensors; printers, scanners and what have you.
Actually, there are more to equipments, like tripods, fluid heads, dollies and so on. Then, follows the autofocus and zoom lenses; camera engine, flexicolor software….